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Ralph 'Pete' Peters
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A Reliability & Maintenance Excellence and MRO Glossary


Introduction:The following terms and definitions are from the area of Maintenance Management, Maintenance Storeroom Operations, Inventory Management, and MRO Materials Management areas. In addition we have included Oil and Gas terms. Included in this version are definitions of selected terms used within the entire PRIDE-in-Maintenance.com site.

P   Q    R    S    T    U    V    W   X    Y    Z



Pareto's Principle - The Critical few, often about 20%, of parts or people or users that should receive attention before the insignificant many, which are usually about 80%.

Part Numbers - Unique identifying numbers and letters that denote each specific part Configuration; also called stock numbers or item numbers.

Percent Planned Work - The percentage of total work (in labor hours) performed in a given time period which has been planned in advance.

Performance Based Contract - A contract that clearly spells out the expected results from a contractor.

Periodic Maintenance - Cyclic maintenance actions carried out at regular intervals, based on repair history data, use or elapsed time.

P-F Interval - A term used in Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). The time from when a Potential Failure can first be detected on an asset or component using a selected Predictive Maintenance task, until the asset or component has failed. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) principles state that the Frequency with which a predictive maintenance task should be performed is determined solely by the P-F Interval.

Permeability - The permeability of a rock is the measure of the resistance to the flow of fluid through the rock. High permeability means fluid passes through the rock easily.

Physical Asset Management - Gaining maximum productivity and effectiveness from physical systems and equipment.

Pick List - A selection of required stores items for a Work Order or task.

Planned Maintenance - Maintenance carried out according to a documented plan of tasks, skills, and resources; any maintenance activity for which a pre-determined job procedure has been documented, for which all labor, materials, tools, and equipment required to carry out the task have been estimated, and their Availability assured before commencement of the task.

Plant Engineering - A staff Function whose prime responsibility is to ensure that maintenance techniques are effective, that equipment is designed and modified to improve Maintainability, that ongoing maintenance technical problems are investigated, and appropriate corrective and improvement actions are taken. Used interchangeably with Maintenance Engineering and Reliability Engineering.

Play - An area in which hydrocarbon accumulations or prospects with similar characteristics occur, such as the Lower Tertiary play in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico or the Marcellus play in the eastern United States.

Porosity - The measure of a rock's ability to hold a fluid. Porosity is normally expressed as a percentage of the total rock which is taken up by pore space.

Possible Reserves - Additional reserves that are less certain to be recovered than probable reserves.

Potential Failure - A term used in Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). An identifiable condition which indicates that a Functional Failure is either about to occur, or in the process of occurring.

Pounds per Square Inch (Psi) - The common method of measuring natural gas pressure. One psi is equal to 28" of water column. A common delivery pressure for residential applications is 1/4 psi or 7" water column. A common delivery pressure for industrial customers may be 10 psi. Power plants may get gas pressure delivered in several hundred psi or have a compressor on-site to boost the pressure to run combustion turbines..

Predictive Maintenance (PdM) - Use of measured physical parameters against known engineering limits for detecting, analyzing, and correcting equipment problems before a Failure occurs; examples include: Vibration Analysis, Sonic Testing, Dye Testing, Infrared Testing, Thermal Testing, Coolant Analysis, Teratechnology, and Equipment History Analysis. A subset of Preventive Maintenance that uses Nondestructive Testing such as Spectral Condition Based Maintenance, On-Condition Maintenance, and Predictive Maintenance can be used interchangeably.

Preventive Maintenance (PM) - Maintenance carried out at pPredetermined intervals, or to other prescribed criteria, and intended to reduce the likelihood of a Functional Failure. Actions performed in an attempt to keep an item in a specific operating condition by means of Systematic Inspection, Detection, and Prevention of Incipient Failure; an Equipment Maintenance Strategy based on replacing, overhauling or remanufacturing an item at a fixed interval, regardless of its condition at the time. Scheduled Restoration Tasks and Scheduled Discard Tasks are both examples of Preventive Maintenance Tasks. See also Scheduled Maintenance.

PRIDE-in-Maintenance - Coined originally in 1981 as the theme for a presentation to the craft work force at a manufacturing plant in Greenville, Mississippi. It is about changing the hearts, minds and attitudes about the profession and practice of maintenance. It is about PRIDE and People Really Interested in Developing Excellence in Maintenance Operations of all types. Its foundation starts with the most important Maintenance Resource, the crafts work force. The goal is to achieve PRIDE in Maintenance from within the crafts work force and among their Maintenance Leaders and to have Top Leaders realize the true value of their total Maintenance Operation and take positive action.

Priority - The relative importance of a single job in relationship to other jobs, operational needs, Safety, etc., and the time within which the job should be done; used for Scheduling Work Orders.

Proactive Maintenance - A Maintenance Strategy that is anticipatory and includes a level of planning; any tasks used to predict or prevent Equipment Failures.

Probability - The likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen. Probability theory is used extensively in areas such as statistics, mathematics, science and philosophy to draw conclusions about the likelihood of potential events and the underlying mechanics of complex systems.

Probabilistic Risk Assessment - A "top-down" approach used to apportion Risk to individual areas of plant and equipment, and possibly to individual Assets to achieve an overall Target Level of Risk for a plant, site or organization. These levels of Risk are then used in Risk-Based Techniques, such as Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) to assist in the development of appropriate Equipment Maintenance Strategies, and to identify required Equipment Modifications.

Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) - Similar to Probabilistic Risk Assessment, except focused solely on safety related Risks.

Probable Reserves - Additional reserves that are less certain to be recovered than proved reserves but which, together with proved reserves, are as likely as not to be recovered.

Procurement - Process of obtaining persons, services, supplies, Facilities, materials, or equipment. It may include the Functions of Design, Standards Determination, Specification Development, and Selection of Suppliers, Financing, Contract Administration, and other related functions.

Produced Water - Water produced in connection with oil and natural gas exploration and development activities.

Production Sharing Contract (PSC) - An agreement between a host government and the owners (or co-owners) of a well or field regarding the percentage of production each party will receive after the parties have recovered a specified amount of capital and operational expenses.

Productive Well - A well capable of producing hydrocarbons in sufficient quantities to justify commercial exploitation.

Profit-Centered Maintenance (PCM) - A value adding, business approach to the maintenance leadership and management of maintenance and Physical Asset Management. Simply stated it asks the question; "If I owned this maintenance operation as a business to make a profit, what would I do differently?" On a broader scope, it is the application of World-Class Maintenance Practices, attitudes and Leadership Principles. When applied, it makes an iInhouse maintenance operation equivalent to a profit center with both a Financial System and Performance Measurement Process in place to validate results.

Profit and Customer-Centered Maintenance (PCCM) - On a broader scope it combines the philosophies of Profit-Centered Maintenance with Customer-Centered Maintenance into management and leadership Maintenance Processes. It is the application of Maintenance Best Practices, attitudes and Leadership Principles to both profit and Maintenance Customer Service. When applied, it makes an Inhouse maintenance operation equivalent to a profit center when both a Financial System and Performance Measurement Process in place tovalidate results.

Project Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) Chart - A Scheduling tool which shows in Flow Chart format the interdependencies between project activities.

Proppant - Sand or man-made, sand-sized particles pumped into a formation during a hydraulic fracturing treatment to keep fractures open so that oil and natural gas can flow through the fractures to the wellbore.

Protective Device - Devices and Assets intended to eliminate or reduce the Consequences of Equipment Failure. Some examples include Standby Plant and Equipment, Emergency Systems, Safety Valves, Alarms, Trip Devices, and Guards.

Proved Developed Reserves - Proved reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared to the cost of a new well.

Proved Reserves - Proved oil and gas reserves are those quantities of oil and gas which, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible – as defined by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission regulations.

Provisioning - Process of determining and selecting the varieties and quantities of repair parts, spares, special tools, and test and support equipment that should be procured and stocked to sustain and maintain equipment for specified periods of time. It includes Identification of items of supply; establishing data for catalogs, technical manuals and Allowance Lists; and providing instructions and schedules for delivery of provisioned items.

Purchase Requisition - The prime document raised by user departments authorizing the purchase of specific materials, parts, supplies, equipment or services from external suppliers.

Purchase Order - The prime document created by an organization, and issued to an external supplier, ordering specific materials, parts, supplies, equipment or services.

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Quality Rate - A term used in the calculation of Overall Equipment Effectiveness. The proportion of the output from a machine or process which meets required product quality standards. Normally specified as a percentage.

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Ranking Index for Maintenance Expenditures (RIME) - A maintenance priority methodology that provides a method to include a ranking of equipment/asset Criticality combined with the repair work classification ranking to produce a priority index value.

Reaction Time-Response Time - The time required between the receipt of an order or impulse triggering some action and the initiation of the action.

Ready Line - Used in relation to mobile equipment. Equipment which is available, but not being utilized is typically parked on the Ready Line. This term is used interchangeably with Go-Line.

Reasonable Certainty - A high degree of certainty. Much more likely to be achieved than not.

Rebuild - Restore an item to an acceptable condition in accordance with the original design Specifications.

Rebuild-Recondition - Total tear down and reassembly of a product, usually to the latest Configuration.

Recompletion - The process of entering an existing wellbore and performing work designed to establish production from a new zone.

Recordable Cases - As related to health, safety and environment (HSE), recordable cases include occupational death, nonfatal occupational illness and those nonfatal occupational injuries which involve one or more of the following: loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job or medical treatment (other than first aid).

Redesign - A term which, in Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), means any one-off intervention to enhance the capability of a piece of equipment, a job procedure, a management system or people's skills.

Redundancy - Two or more parts, component, or systems joined functionally so that if one fails, some or all of the remaining components are capable of continuing with Function accomplishment; Fail-safe; backup.

Refurbish - Clean and replace worn parts on a selective basis to make the product usable to a customer. Less involved than rebuild.

Regulatory Compliance Audit - Maintenance organizations around the world struggle to comply with new compliance regulations in areas such as health and safety, securities, money laundering, anti-terrorism and records management. The Regulatory Compliance Audit measures your ability to document, capture and organize information related to relevant compliance programs and allows your organization to correlate relevant laws and regulations with internal compliance activities and policies and procedures. As a result, Your organization can reduce the cost and complexity of monitoring and managing corporate compliance programs, balance compliance investment with top-down risk assessment and manage risk to provide greater oversight and assurance.

Reliable Planning Times - Setting a reliable planning time for a maintenance activity allows a Maintenance Professional to do what needs to be done on time and within budget.

Reliability - The Probability an item will perform its intended Function without Failure for a specified time period under specified conditions. The ability of an item to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time; is usually expressed as the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). Normally measured by Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF).

Reliability Analysis - The process of identifying maintenance of significant items and classifying them with respect to malfunction on safety, Environmental, operational, and economic consequences. Possible Failure Mode of an item is identified and an appropriate maintenance policy is assigned to counter it. Subsets are Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Risk analysis, and HAZOP (hazardous operations) analysis.

Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) - Optimizing maintenance intervention and tactics to meet predetermined reliability goals. A structured process, originally developed in the airline industry, but now commonly used in all industries to determine the Equipment Maintenance Strategies required for any physical asset to ensure that it continues to fulfill its intended Functions in its present condition.

Reliability Engineering - A staff Function whose prime responsibility is to ensure that maintenance techniques are effective, that equipment is designed and modified to improve Maintainability, that ongoing maintenance technical problems are investigated, and appropriate corrective and improvement actions are taken. Used interchangeably with Plant Engineering and Maintenance Engineering.

Reliability Performance Indicators (RPI) - Key metrics that relate to the measurement of asset reliability. Examples include:

  • Maximum Corrective Time (MCT) and Maximum Preventive Time (MPT). The most time expected for maintenance, usually specified at 95% Confidence level.
  • Mean Active Maintenance Time (MAMT). Weighed average of Mean Corrective Time and Mean Preventive Time but excluding administrative and logistics support time.
  • Mean Downtime (MDT). Average time a system cannot perform its mission; including response time, active maintenance, supply time and administrative and logistics support time.
  • Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF). The average time/distance/events a product or equipment process delivers between Breakdown.
  • Mean Time Between Maintenance (MTBM). The average time between corrective and preventive actions.
  • Mean Time To Repair (MTTR). The average time it takes to fix a failed item.

Reorder Point (ROP) - Minimum quantity, established by economic calculation and management direction, which triggers the ordering of more items.

Repair - To restore and item to an acceptable condition by the renewal, replacement, or mending of worn or damaged parts. Restoration or replacement of parts or Components as necessitated by wear, tear, damage, or Failure; to return the facility, equipment, or part to efficient operating condition; any activity which returns the capability of an asset that has failed to a level of performance equal to, or greater than, that specified by its Functions, but not greater than its original maximum capability. An activity which increases the maximum capability of an asset is a Modification.

Repair Parts - Individual parts or assemblies required for the maintenance or repair of equipment, systems, or spares. Such repair parts may also be repairable or non-repairable assemblies, or one-piece items. Consumable supplies used in maintenance or repair, such as wiping rags, solvents, and lubricants, are not considered repair parts. Repair parts are also service parts.

Repairable - Parts or items that are technically and economically repairable. A repairable part, upon becoming defective, is subject to return to the repair point for repair action.

Replaceable Item - Hardware that is functionally Interchangeable with another item but differs physically from the original part to the extent that installation of the replacement requires such operations as drilling, reaming, cutting, filling, or shimming in addition to normal attachment or installation operations.

Reserves - Estimated remaining quantities of oil and gas and related substances anticipated to be economically producible, as of a given date, by application of development projects to known accumulations. In addition, there must exist, or there must be a reasonable expectation that there will exist, the legal right to produce or a revenue interest in production, installed means of delivering oil and gas or related substances to market and all permits and financing required to implement the project.

Reservoir - A porous and permeable underground formation containing a natural accumulation of producible oil and/or gas that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is individual and separate from other reservoirs.

Resources - Quantities of oil and gas estimated to exist in naturally occurring accumulations. A portion of the resources may be estimated to be recoverable, and another portion may be considered to be unrecoverable. Resources include both discovered and undiscovered accumulations.

Restoration - Any activity which returns the capability of an asset that has not failed to a level of performance equal to, or greater than, that specified by its Functions, but not greater than its original maximum capability. Not to be confused with a Modification or a repair.

Return on Assets - An accounting term. Let's not get into a lengthy discussion of the relative merits of various accounting standards, how Assets should be valued (book value, replacement value, depreciation rates and methods etc.), and differences between tangible and intangible Assets. In practical terms, as it impacts on maintenance, Return on Assets is the profit attributable to a particular plant or factory, divided by the amount of money invested in plant and equipment at that plant or factory. It is normally expressed as a percentage. As such, it is roughly equivalent (in principle - please excuse the pun!) to the interest rate you get on money invested in the bank, except that in this case the money is invested in plant and equipment.

Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) - A measure of the profitability of a company's capital employed in its business compared with that of its peers. ROCE is calculated as a ratio, with the numerator of net income plus after-tax interest expense and the denominator of average total equity plus total debt. The net income is adjusted for nonoperational or special items impacts.

Return on Maintenance Investment (ROMI) - The profit attributable to the maintenance organization/department of a factory, divided by the amount of money invested in the maintenance organization/department at a plant or factory. It is normally expressed as a percentage.

Risk - The potential for the realization of the unwanted, negative consequences of an event. The product of Conditional Probability of an event, and the event outcomes.

Rotable - A term often used in the maintenance of heavy mobile equipment. A rotable component is one which, when it has failed, or is about to fail, is removed from the asset and a replacement component is installed in its place. The component that has been removed is then repaired or restored, and placed back in the maintenance store or warehouse, ready for re-issue.

Routine Maintenance Tasks - Any maintenance task that is performed at a regular, predefined interval.

Running Maintenance - Maintenance that can be done while the asset is in service.

Run To Failure - See Gambling with Maintenance

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Safety Consequences - A Failure has safety consequences if it causes a loss of Function or other damage that could hurt or kill someone.

Safety Meeting - Enables organizations to achieve regulatory compliance, reduce accidents/incidents and injuries, and improve maintenance operations.

Safety Stock - Quantity of an item, in addition to the normal level of supply, required to be on had to permit continuing operation with a specific level of Confidence if the supply is late or demand suddenly increases.

Salvage - The saving of reuse of condemned, discarded, or abandoned property, and of materials contained therein for reuse or scrapping. As a noun, it refers to property that has some value in excess of its basic material content, but is in such condition that it has no reasonable prospect of original use, and its repair or rehabilitation is clearly not practical.

Schedule Compliance - The number of scheduled jobs actually accomplished during the period covered by an approved schedule; also the number of scheduled labor hours actually worked against a planned number of scheduled labor hours, expressed as percentage; one of the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) often used to monitor and control maintenance. It is defined as the number of Scheduled Work Orders completed in a given time period (normally one week), divided by the total number of scheduled work orders that should have been completed during that period, according to the approved Maintenance Schedule for that period. It is normally expressed as a percentage, and will always be less than or equal to 100%. The closer to 100%, the better the performance for that time period.

Scheduled Discard Task - Replacement of an item at a fixed, predetermined interval, regardless of its current condition; a maintenance task to replace a component with a new component at a specified, pre-determined Frequency, regardless of the condition of the component at the time of its replacement. An example would be the routine replacement of the oil filter on a motor vehicle every 6,000 miles. The Frequency with which a scheduled discard task should be performed is determined by the useful life of the component.

Scheduled Maintenance (SM) - Pre-planned actions performed to keep an item in specified operating condition by means of systematic Inspection, detection, and prevention of incipient Failure. Sometimes called Preventive Maintenance, but actually a subset of P.M.

Scheduled Operating Time - The time during which an asset is scheduled to be operating, according to a long-term production schedule.

Scheduled Restoration Task - A maintenance task to restore a component at a specified, pre-determined Frequency, regardless of the condition of the component at the time of its replacement. An example would be the routine overhaul of a slurry pump every 1,000 Operating Hours. The Frequency with which a Scheduled Restoration task should be performed is determined by the useful life of the component.

Scheduled Work Order - A Work Order that has been planned and included on an approved Maintenance Schedule.

Scoping - A planning activity which outlines the extent/scope and detail of work to be done and defines the resources needed.

Scoreboard Assessment - The analysis and summary of the results of a three to five day assessment by the Maintenance Excellence Institute professionals ask the 300 questions on the TMEII Scoreboard, and recording the specific answers, evaluating those answers by your maintenance organization. Our assessment report is a snap-shot of how you currently stand in your pursuit of Maintenance Excellence.

Scoreboard for Excellence - Baseline for today's most comprehensive benchmarking guides for Facilities Management. Developed initially in 1981 and enhanced into its present format of five different Scoreboard for Excellence versions. See Scoreboard for Facilities Management Excellence and Scoreboard for Maintenance Excellence.

Scoreboard for Facilities Management Excellence - Today's most comprehensive benchmarking guide for Facilities management and maintenance operations. Developed along the same format as the Scoreboard for Maintenance Excellence, the New Millennium version includes 27 evaluation (best practice) categories and 300 evaluation categories. An excellent benchmarking guide for Physical Asset Management operations within large physical plant and Facilities complexes such as universities, state and municipal building complexes, health-care Facilities, secondary school complexes and retail organizations with nation-wide system of company owned retail sites. Provides an essential benchmarking guide where results become an important external benchmark against recognized best practices and also the user's baseline for Continuous Reliability Improvement.

Scoreboard for Maintenance Excellence - Today's most comprehensive Benchmarking guide for plant Maintenance Operations. Developed initially in 1982 and enhanced into its present New Millennium format of 27 evaluation (best practice) categories and 300 evaluation categories. Used by over 4,000 organizations and for benchmarking all types of maintenance operations. Provides an essential benchmarking guide where results become an important external benchmark against recognized best practices and also the user's baseline for Continuous Reliability Improvement.

Secondary Damage - Any additional damage to equipment, above and beyond the initial Failure Mode, that occurs as a direct consequence of the initial Failure Mode.

Secondary Failures - Malfunctions that are caused by the Failure of another item.

Secondary Function - A term used in Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). The secondary functionality required of an asset - generally not associated with the reason for acquiring the asset, but now that the asset has been acquired, the asset is now required to provide this functionality. For example, a secondary Function of a pump may be to ensure that all of the liquid that is pumped is contained within the pump (i.e. the pump does not leak). An asset may have tens or hundreds of secondary functions associated with it.

Security Audit - An audit of how the confidentiality, availability and integrity of an organization's information is assured. An information security audit is one of the best ways to determine the security of an organization's information without incurring the cost and other associated damages of a security incident.

Serial Number - Number or letters that uniquely identify an item.

Service Contract - Contract calling directly for a contractor's time and effort rather than for a specific end product.

Service Level - Frequency usually expressed as a percentage, with which a repair part Demand can be filled through a particular service stock echelon. A 95% level of service means that 95 out of 100 Demands are properly issued. If viewed from the end customer service technician perspective, the service level is the percent of parts received out of those requested, from all levels of the support system.

Serviceability - Characteristics of an item, equipment, or system that make it easy to maintain after it is put into operation. Similar to Maintainability.

Servicing - The replenishment of consumables needed to keep an item in operating condition.

Shale - A very fine-grained sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation of clay, mud or silt and that usually has a finely stratified or laminated structure. Certain shale formations, such as the Eagle Ford and the Barnett, contain large amounts of oil and natural gas.

Shelf Life - The period of time during which an item can remain unused in proper storage without significant deterioration.

Shop Stock - Self-service items such as Class C SKUs such as nuts, bolts, fitting, etc., that are stored directly in the shop work area. May be on consignment directly from the vendor or vendor may inventory and "Keep Full" as needed without significant paperwork requirement.

Shutdown - That period of time when equipment is out of service.

Shutdown Maintenance - Maintenance done while the asset is out of service, as in the annual plant shutdown.

Six Maintenance Resources - Continuous Reliability Improvement focuses on these primary maintenance resources; 1) People Resources, 2) Physical Assets, 3) Parts and Material Resources, 4) Information Resources, 5) Technical Skills Resources and 6) Hidden Resources via Synergistic Teams.

Social Life Cycle Analysis (S-LCA) - A methodology for assessing internalities and externalities of the production of goods and services based on social and socioeconomic indicators.

Sour Gas - Sour gas is natural gas or any other gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S).

Spacing - The distance between wells producing from the same reservoir. Spacing is often expressed in terms of acres (e.g. 80-acre spacing) and is often established by regulatory agencies.

Specifications - Physical, chemical, or performance characteristics of equipment, parts, or work required to meet minimum acceptable standards.

Standard Item - Part, component, material, subassembly, assembly, or equipment that is identified or described accurately by a standard document or drawing.

Standardization - Process of establishing the greatest practical uniformity of items and of practices to assure the minimum feasible variety of such items and practices, and affect optimum interchangeability.

Standard Job - A Work Order stored in the CMMS which contains all the necessary information required to perform a maintenance task. (See also Model Work Order)

Standby - Assets installed or available but not in use.

Standing Work Order - A Work Order that is left open either indefinitely or for a pre-determined period of time for the purpose of collecting labor hours. costs and/or history for tasks for which it has been decided that individual work orders should not be raised. Examples would include: Standing Work Orders raised to collect time spent at Safety Meetings, or in general housekeeping activities; a work order that remains open, usually for the annual budget cycle, to accommodate information small jobs or for specific tasks.

Statistical Analysis - Statistics and the process of statistical analysis is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. It is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines, from the natural and social sciences to the humanities, and to government and business. Within maintenance, the probability of failure is a key concern.

Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) - A process used to recover bitumen that is too deep to mine. A pair of horizontal wells is drilled from a central well pad. In a plant nearby, steam generators heat water and transform it into steam. The steam then travels through above-ground pipelines to the wells. It enters the ground via the steam injection well and heats the bitumen to a temperature at which it can flow by gravity into the producing well. The resulting bitumen and condensed steam emulsion is then piped from the producing well to the plant, where it is separated and treated. The water is recycled for generating new steam.

Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) - A warehouse Inventory management term for individual stock items carried in Inventory.

Stock Items - Same as SKU's. Items that are carried in inventory.

Stock Number - Number assigned by the stocking organization to each group of articles or material, which are then treated as if identical within the using supply system; also called part number, item number or part identifier.

Stock Out - Indicates that all quantities of a part normally on hand have been used, so the items are not presently available. Demand for a non-stock part is usually treated as a separate situation.

Stores Issue - The issue and/or delivery of parts and materials from the store or warehouse.

Stores Requisition - The prime document raised by user departments authorizing the issue of specific materials, parts, supplies or equipment from the store or warehouse.

Supply - Procurement, storage, and distribution of items.

Sweet Gas - Natural gas that contains little or no hydrogen sulfide.

Synergy: From the Greek Synonym; Ergo - Meaning working together, circa 1660, refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents. It is originally a scientific term. St. Paul used the word in his Epistles (Rom. 8:28; 1 Cor. 3:9) to illustrate a dynamic conception of human, divine and cosmic cooperation: "I did the planting, Apollo the watering, but God made things grow…We are fellow workers (synergia) with God; you are God's farm, God's building."

Support Equipment - Items required to maintain systems in effective operating condition under various environments. Support equipment includes general and special-purpose vehicles, power units, stands, test equipment, tools, or test benches needed to facilitate or sustain maintenance action, to detect or diagnose malfunctions, or to monitor the operational status of equipment and systems.

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Technical Data and Information - Includes, but is not limited to, production and engineering data, prints and drawings, documents such as standards, Specifications, technical manuals, changes in Modifications, Inspection, and testing procedures, and performance and Failure data.

Terotechnology - An integration of management, financial, engineering, operating maintenance, and other practices applied to physical Assets in pursuit of an economical Life cycle; the application of managerial, financial, engineering and other skills to extend the operational life of, and increase the efficiency of, equipment and machinery.

Test and Support Equipment - All special tools and Checkout equipment, metrology and calibrations equipment, maintenance stands, and handling equipment required for maintenance. Includes external and built-in test equipment (BITE) considered part of the supported system or equipment.

Thermography - The process of monitoring the condition of equipment through the measurement and analysis of heat. Typically conducted through the use of infra-red cameras and associated software. Commonly used for monitoring the condition of high voltage insulators and electrical connections, as well as for monitoring the condition of refractory in furnaces and boilers, amongst other applications.

Throwaway Maintenance - Maintenance performed by discarding used parts rather than attempting to repair them.

Tight Gas - Natural gas produced from relatively impermeable rock. Getting tight gas out usually requires enhanced technology applications like hydraulic fracturing. The term is generally used for reservoirs other than shale.

Top Leaders - C-positions, especially the CFO, VP-Operations, Managing Directors  and also Engineering & Maintenance Managers.

Total Asset Management - An integrated approach (yet to be developed!) to which incorporates elements such as Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), Total Productive Maintenance, Design for Maintainability, Design for Reliability, Value Engineering, Life Cycle Costing, Probabilistic Risk Assessment and others, to arrive at the optimum Cost-Benefit-Risk asset solution to meet any given production requirements.

Total Operations Success - The overall goal for both a public or private organization. Whatever the goal of the organization, maintenance must also remember that Maintenance Excellence must be to ensure Total Operations Success.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) - Japanese-based maintenance strategy for company wide equipment management program emphasizing operator involvement in equipment maintenance, continuous improvement in equipment effectiveness and measurement of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE).

Total Recordable Rate (TRR) - A measure of the rate of recordable cases, normalized per 100 workers per year. The factor is derived by multiplying the number of recordable injuries in a calendar year by 200,000 (100 employees working 2,000 hours per year) and dividing this value by the total man hours actually worked in the year.

Total Shareholder Return (TSR) - Represents share price appreciation and dividends returned to shareholders over a period. It is calculated as follows: [(stock price at the end of the period) – (stock price at the start of the period) + (dividends paid during the calculation period) ÷ (stock price at the start of the period)].

Total System Support (ToSS) - The composite of all considerations needed to assure the effective and economical support of a system throughout its programmed Life Cycle.

Tradesperson - Alternative to Craftsperson. A skilled maintenance worker who has typically been formally trained through an apprenticeship program.

TrueWorkShopTM - An interactive experience where the attendee participates in the events during the learning process and produces a presentation that includes ideas for the pursuit of Maintenance Excellence, complete with a set of Maintenance Improvement goals and objectives and implementation plans for their Maintenance environment.

Troubleshooting - Locating or isolating and identifying discrepancies or malfunctions of equipment and determine the corrective action required.

Turnaround Time - Interval between the time a repairable item is removed from use and the time it is again available if full serviceable condition.

Turnover - Measurement on either numbers of parts or on monetary value that evaluates how often a part is demanded versus the average number kept in Inventory. For example, if two widgets are kept in inventory and eight are used each year, then the turnover is 8/2 = four times per year. In monetary terms turnover is cost of inventory sold/average cost of inventory carried.

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Unconventional Reservoirs - Reservoirs with permeability so low (generally less than 0.1 millidarcy) that horizontal hydraulically fractured stimulated wells or other advanced completion techniques must be utilized to extract hydrocarbons at commercial rates. Shale reservoirs such as the Eagle Ford and Barnett, as well as tight reservoirs like the Bakken and Three Forks, both are examples of unconventional reservoirs.

Undeveloped Acreage - Acreage on which wells have not been drilled or completed to a point that would permit the production of commercial quantities of oil and gas regardless of whether or not the acreage contains proved reserves.

Unit - The joining of interests in a reservoir or field to provide for development and operations without regard to
separate property interests. Also, the area covered by a unitization agreement.

Universal Maintenance Standards - The Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) method was developed by H.B. Maynard Inc. in the 1970s. It represents a predetermined standard data method. Standard data tables for a wide range of small maintenance task are available. Standard data represents the building blocks that can then be used to estimate larger, more complex jobs. Each standard data table provides what the operation is, what is included in the time value, and the table of standard data time for the variables that are included.

Unplanned Maintenance - Maintenance done without planning or scheduling; could be related to a Breakdown, running repair, or corrective work; any maintenance activity for which a pre-determined job procedure has not been documented, or for which all labor, materials, tools, and equipment required to carry out the task have been not been estimated, and their Availability assured before commencement of the task.

Unscheduled Maintenance (UM) - Emergency Maintenance (EM) or Corrective Maintenance (CM) to restore a failed item to usable condition.

Up - In a condition suitable for use. Not Down for repairs.

Uptime - It is defined as being the time that an item of equipment is in service and operating.

Usage - Quantity of items consumed or necessary for product support. Usage is generally greater than the technical Failure Rate

Useful Life - The maximum length of time that a Component can be left in service, before it will start to experience a rapidly increasing Conditional Probability of Failure. The Useful Life determines the Frequency with which a Scheduled Restoration or a Scheduled Discard task should be performed.

Utilization - The proportion of available time that an item of equipment is operating. Calculated by dividing equipment Operating Hours by equipment Available Hours. Generally expressed as a percentage.


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Value Engineering - A systematic approach to assessing and analyzing the user's requirements of a new asset, and ensuring that those requirements are met, but not exceeded. Consists primarily of eliminating perceived "non-value-adding" features of new equipment.

Variance Analysis - Interpretation of the causes for a difference between actual and some norm, budget, or estimate.

Vibration Analysis - The process of monitoring the condition of equipment, and the diagnosis of faults in equipment through the measurement and analysis of vibration within that equipment. Typically conducted through hand-held or permanently positioned accelerometers placed on key measurement points on the equipment. Commonly used on most large items of rotating equipment, such as turbines, centrifugal pumps, motors, gearboxes etc.

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Warranty - Guarantee an item will perform as specified for at least a specified time, or will be repaired or replaced at no cost to the user.

Waterflood - An improved oil recovery technique that involves injecting water into a producing reservoir to enhance
movement of oil to producing wells.

Wear Out - Deterioration because of age, corrosion, temperature or friction that generally increases the Failure Rate over time.

Wellbore - The hole drilled by a drilling rig to explore for or develop oil and/or natural gas. Also referred to as a well or borehole.

Wet Gas - Produced gas that contains natural gas liquids.

Working Interest - The right granted to the lessee of a property to explore for, produce and own oil, gas or other minerals. The working interest owners bear the exploration, development and operating costs.

Workload - The number of labor hours needed to carry out a maintenance program, including all scheduled and unscheduled work and maintenance support of project work.

Work Order (WO) - A unique control document that comprehensively describes the job to be done; may include formal requisition for maintenance, authorization, and charge codes, as well as what actually was done; The prime document used by the maintenance Function to manage maintenance tasks. It may include such information as a description of the work required, the task priority, the job procedure to be followed, the parts, materials, tools and equipment required to complete the job, the labor hours, costs and materials consumed in completing the task, as well as key information on Failure Causes, what work was performed etc.

Work Request - The initial request for maintenance service or work usually as a statement of the problem. The work request provides the preliminary information for creation of the Work Order. Depending on the cost and scope of a work request an approval process may be required before the work order is created, planned and scheduled; The prime document raised by user departments requesting the initiation of a maintenance task. This is usually converted to a work order after the work request has been authorized for completion.

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